Tags: Programming Languages, Semantics, TypesPosted on 01 September 2012.
Adding types to untyped languages has been studied extensively, and with good reason. Type systems offer developers strong static guarantees about the behavior of their programs, and adding types to untyped code allows developers to reap these benefits without having to rewrite their entire code base. However, these guarantees come at a cost. Retrofitting types on to untyped code can be an onerous and time-consuming process. In order to mitigate this cost, researchers have developed methods to type partial programs or sections of programs, or to allow looser guarantees from the type system. (Gradual typing and soft typing are some examples.) This reduces the up-front cost of typing a program.
However, these approaches only address a part of the problem. Even if the programmer is willing to expend the effort to type the program, he still cannot control what counts as an acceptable program; that is determined by the type system. This significantly reduces the flexibility of the language and forces the programmer to work within a very strict framework. To demonstrate this, observe the following program in Racket...
#lang racket (define (gt2 x y) (> x y))
...and its Typed Racket counterpart.
#lang typed/racket (: gt2 (Number Number -> Boolean)) (define (gt2 x y) (> x y))
The typed example above, which appears to be logically typed, fails to type-check. This is due to the sophistication with which Typed Racket handles numbers. It can distinguish between complex numbers and real numbers, integers and non-integers, even positive and negative integers. In this system, Number is actually an alias for Complex. This makes sense in that complex numbers are in fact the super type of all other numbers. However, it would also be reasonable to assume that Number means Real, because that's what people tend to think of when they think “number”. Because of this, a developer may expect all functions over real numbers to work over Numbers. However, this is not the case. Greater-than, which is defined over reals, cannot be used with Number because it is not defined over complex numbers. Now, this could be resolved by changing the type of gt2 to take Reals, rather than Numbers. But then consider this program:
#lang typed/racket (: plus (Number Number -> Number)) (define (plus x y) (+ x y)) ;Looks fine so far... (: gt2 (Real Real -> Boolean)) (define (gt2 x y) (> x y)) ;...Still ok... (gt2 (plus 3 4) 5) ;...Here (plus 3 4) evaluates to a Number which causes gt2 to give ;the type error “Expected Real but got Complex”.Now, in order to make this program type, we would have to adjust plus to return Reals, even though it works with it's current typing! And we'd have to do the same for every program that calls plus. This can cause a ripple effect through the program, making typing the program labor-intensive, despite the fact that the program will actually run just fine on some inputs, which may be all we care about. But we still have to jump through hoops to get the program to run at all!
In the above example, the type system in Typed Racket requires the programmer to ensure that there are no runtime errors caused by using a complex number where a real number is expected, even if it means significant extra programming effort. There are cases, however, where type systems do not provide guarantees because it would cross the threshold of too much work for programmers. One such guarantee is ensuring that vector references are always given positive integer inputs. The Typed Racket type system does not offer this guarantee because of the required programming effort, and so it traded that particular guarantee for convenience and ease of programming.
In both these cases, type systems are trying to determine the best balance betwen safety and convenience. However, the best a system can do is choose either safety or convenience and apply that to all programs. Vector references cannot be checked in any program, because it isn't worth the extra engineering effort, whereas all programs must be checked for number realness, because it's worth the extra engineering effort. This seems pretty arbirtary! Type systems are trying to guess at what the developer might want, instead of just asking. However, the developer has a much better idea of which checks are relevant and important for a specific program and which are irrelevant or unimportant. The type system should leverage this information and offer the useful guarantees without requiring unhelpful ones.
To this end, we have developed progressive types, which allow the developer to require type guarantees that are significant to the program, and ignore those that are irrelevant. From the total set of possible type errors, the developer would select which among them must be detected as compile time type errors, and which should be allowed to possibly cause runtime failures. In the above example, the developer could allow errors caused by treating a Number as a Real at runtime, trusting that they will never occur or that it won't be catastrophic if they do or that the particular error is orthogonal to the reasons for type-checking the program at all. Thus, the developer can disregard an insignificant error while still reaping the benefits of the rest of the type system. This addresses a problem that underlies all type systems: The programmer doesn't get to choose which classes of programs are “good” and which are “bad.” Progressive types give the programmer that control.
In order to allow this, the type system has an allowed error set, Ω, in addition to the type environment. So while a traditional typing rule takes the form Γ⊢e:τ, a rule in progressive type would take the form Ω;Γ⊢e:τ. Here, Ω is the set of errors the developer wants to allow to cause runtime failures. Expressions may evaluate to errors, and if those errors are in Ω, the expression will type to ⊥, otherwise it will fail to type. This is reflected in the progress theorem that goes along with the type system.
If Typed Racket were a progressively typed language, the above program would type only if the programmer had selected “Expected Real, but got Complex” to be in Ω. This means that if numerical calculations are really orthogonal to the point of the program, or there are other checks in place insuring the function will only get the right type of input, the developer can just tell the type checker not to worry about those errors! However, if it's important to ensure that complex numbers never appear where reals are required, the developer can tell the type checker to detect those errors. Thus the programmer can determine what constitutes a “good” program, rather than working around a different, possibly inconvenient, definition of “good”. By passing this control over to the developer, progressive type systems allow the balance between ease of engineering and saftey to be set at a level appropriate to the program.
Progressive typing differs from gradual typing in that while gradual typing allows the developer to type portions of a program with a fixed type system, progressive types instead allow the developer to vary the guarantees offered by the type system. Further, like soft typing, progressive typing allows for runtime errors instead of static guarantees, but unlike soft typing, it restricts which classes of runtime failures are allowed to occur. Because our system allows programmers to progressively adjust the restrictions imposed by the type system, either to loosen or tighten them, they can reap many of the flexibility benefits of a dynamic languages, but get static guarantees of a type system in the way best suited to each of their programs or preferences.
If you are interested in learning more about progressive types, look here.