A large number of computer science education papers focus on data structures. By this, they mean the canon: lists, queues, stacks, heaps, and so on. These are certainly vital to the design of most programs.
However, there is another kind of “data structure” programmers routinely contend with: how to represent the world your program is about. Suppose, for instance, you’re trying to represent a family’s genealogy. You could:
Represent each person as a node and have references to their two biological parents, who in turn have references to their biological parents, and so on. The tree “bottoms out” when we get to people about whom we have no more information.
Represent each person as a node and have references to their children instead (a list, say, if we want to preserve their birth order). This tree bottoms out at people who have no children.
Represent each coupling as a node, and have references to their children (or issue, as genealogists like to say). Now you may have a kind of node for children and another for coupling.
And so on. There are numerous possibilities. Which one should we pick? It depends on (1) what information we even have, (2) what operations we want to perform, and (3) what complexity we need different operations to take.
Unfortunately, computing education research doesn’t talk about this problem very much at all; in fact, we don’t seem to even have terminology to talk about this issue. In a sense, this is also very much a matter of data structure, though of a different kind: whereas the purely abstract data structures of computer science we might call computational data structures, these — which center around directly representing real-world information — we might instead call representational data structures. That could get pretty confusing, though, so we’ve adopted the term data organization to refer to the latter.
Learning to think about data organization is an essential computing skill. But how early can we teach it? How well can students wrestle with it? What methods should we use? Do they need to be sophisticated programmers before they can engage in reasoning about representations?
Good news: we can begin this quite early, and students don’t need to be sophisticated computer scientists: they can just think about the world, and their experiences living in it, to reason about data organizations. Representational data structures probably do a far better job of drawing on their lived experience than computational ones do! (Unless they’ve previously lived as a computer.)
There are several ways we could introduce this topic. We chose to expose them to pairs of representations for the same domain, and have them compare the two. This is related to theories of perception. Read the paper to learn more!
Somewhat subtly, this also adds a dimension to “computational thinking” that is usually quite missing from standard discussions about it. Activities like those described in this paper generate new and engaging activities that many students can participate in. Indeed, computing background does not seem to matter much in our data, and a more diverse group of students is likely to make a much richer set of judgments—thereby enabling students in traditionally underrepresented groups to contribute based on their unique experiences, and also feel more valued.